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17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship

In this article, we will take a look at 17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship. You can skip our detailed analysis and go directly to the 5 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship.

International mobility is a coveted asset in contemporary times. A second passport can open doors to another country, providing various financial, cultural benefits, and freedom. Especially during times of uncertainty and unforeseen catastrophes, it can serve as a vital alternative security plan. A dual/multiple citizen is someone who holds legal citizenship in two countries simultaneously. This status entails both rights (such as passport issuance, entry into the country, work, and residence) and obligations (taxation, national duty, etc.). For a detailed analysis, please refer to our article on Dual Citizenship: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Requirements.

The concept of dual nationality has undergone significant changes over the years. Once considered alien, it is now openly and widely discussed, particularly since the end of the Cold War, marking an era where a more liberal approach towards dual citizenship began to emerge. This shift is attributed, in part, to greater gender equality and the abandonment of mandatory military service. The connection to gender equality is argued through the discriminatory act of women having to relinquish their nationality after marriage for their husband’s, causing related problems. The UN Declaration of Human Rights underscores everyone’s right to nationality, emphasizing its fundamental nature in the global discourse on citizenship.

Why Covet European Nationality?

Europe, being one of the largest destinations for immigrants, welcomed 86.7 million international immigrants in 2020. Holding an EU citizenship comes with numerous advantages. Being a citizen of any of the 27 EU member states automatically grants EU citizenship, facilitating work and residence in another EU state without the need for a visa or additional permits. Consequently, it is not surprising that in 2021, 827,300 people acquired EU citizenship, with 85% of them transitioning from non-EU countries to enjoy the benefits that come with EU citizenship.

European Attitude Towards Dual Citizenship

According to The Macimide Global Expatriate Dual Citizenship Database, the European Union has witnessed a notable shift in policies regarding dual citizenship. The percentage of countries automatically revoking citizenship upon acquisition of another has decreased from 63% in 1960 to 24% in 2020, signaling an increasing tolerance for dual citizenship. Despite this trend, specific countries such as Austria, Germany, Estonia, Bulgaria, Spain, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Netherlands remain hesitant to permit dual citizenship, enforcing strict rules for exceptions.

Global Players in the European Market

The European market is expanding by attracting a diverse range of immigrants through its acceptance of dual citizenship and various citizenship programs. This growth is evident in the presence of various multinational corporations operating in the market, such as ASML Holding N.V. (NASDAQ: ASML) and AstraZeneca plc (NYSE: AZN). The appeal of dual citizenship not only contributes to demographic diversity but also fosters economic development by drawing in skilled professionals and entrepreneurs. This intersection of diverse immigration policies and a flourishing corporate landscape underscores Europe's attractiveness as a global destination for both individuals and businesses alike.

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ASML Holding N.V. (NASDAQ: ASML), a Dutch multinational company, stands out as a pivotal player with a profound impact on the flourishing tech world. The company has earned a significant reputation in the industry, being recognized as Europe's AI champion and hailed as "the continent’s most valuable tech firm." ASML Holding N.V.'s contributions are evidently crucial to the advancements in technology, and their prominence underscores their noteworthy role in shaping the landscape of the tech industry in Europe and globally.

AstraZeneca plc (NYSE: AZN) stands as another prominent global firm, albeit in a different industry. As a pharmaceutical giant, the company is characterized by continuous innovation and sustained growth. Notably, at the close of the previous year, AstraZeneca plc (NYSE: AZN) made headlines by expressing their intent to acquire their first vaccine company, signaling a strategic move to expand their business portfolio. This strategic decision underlines AstraZeneca's commitment to staying at the forefront of advancements in the pharmaceutical sector.

17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship
17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship

17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship

Methodology

For our compilation of the 17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship, we have gathered data from diverse sources, including ImmigrantInvest, Henley & Partners, and the CIA’s World Fact Book-- Citizenship, to determine which European nations permit dual citizenship. We specifically focused on those countries that offer dual citizenship without imposing additional conditions. Our presentation follows a descending order based on the Human Development Index for the year 2021, providing a comprehensive overview of European countries that embrace dual citizenship without stringent requirements.

NOTE: We have also considered Cyprus in our list. Although it is geographically located in West Asia, the country is culturally Southeast European.

By the way, Insider Monkey is an investing website that uses a consensus approach to identify the best stock picks of more than 900 hedge funds investing in US stocks. The website tracks the movement of corporate insiders and hedge funds. Our top 10 consensus stock picks of hedge funds outperformed the S&P 500 stock index by more than 140 percentage points over the last 10 years (see the details here). So, if you are looking for the best stock picks to buy, you can benefit from the wisdom of hedge funds and corporate insiders.

17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship

17. Serbia

HDI Index: 0.802

A European nation that embraces dual citizenship, citizens of this country, whether acquired through birthright or naturalization, are exempt from the obligation of renouncing their citizenship when seeking another nationality. Likewise, foreign nationals are not mandated to release their previous citizenship when becoming citizens of this country. This nation is renowned for offering one of the most favorable citizenship through investment programs, among other pathways to citizenship. Notably, the investment program allows individuals to attain residency in three years and citizenship in six, highlighting the efficiency and attractiveness of the country's citizenship acquisition process.

16. Romania

HDI Index: 0.821

Indeed, Romania is among the countries that have embraced the concept of dual nationality. According to Romanian law, citizens of the country have the right to acquire another citizenship without the requirement of renouncing their Romanian citizenship. Additionally, foreign individuals obtaining Romanian citizenship are granted the same rights as other citizens, including the option for dual citizenship. While the standard naturalization period is approximately 8 years, the route through marriage shortens it to five years. Furthermore, obtaining citizenship through descent is a popular pathway for Romanian nationality, applicable if one or both parents are Romanian citizens, at least one parent or grandparent lost citizenship, or at least one parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent lost citizenship involuntarily. This inclusive approach reflects Romania's openness to diverse routes for acquiring and maintaining citizenship.

15. Portugal

HDI Index: 0.866

Portugal is another European country that acknowledges and permits dual citizenship. Portuguese nationals seeking another nationality can do so without the obligation to renounce their original citizenship. Similarly, foreign individuals applying for Portuguese citizenship need not concern themselves with the status of their previous nationality. This flexibility is particularly beneficial for those aspiring to relocate to Portugal and experience the country's high quality of life. Portugal is renowned for its notable five-year residence investment program, the Golden Visa plan, which is available for non-EU individuals. Additionally, a faster route to citizenship is through descent, a fortunate option for some individuals with Portuguese ancestry. This diversity in pathways underscores Portugal's commitment to providing accessible and inclusive opportunities for citizenship.

14. Greece

HDI Index: 0.887

According to Greek Law, specifically Art. 31 Civil Code and Art 2 par. 2 Law 4251/2014, dual citizenship is permitted. Individuals acquiring citizenship in another country are not required to renounce their Greek citizenship. However, it is important to note that some countries do not accept dual citizenship, and decisions must align with the laws of both nations involved. For EU nationals, acquiring Greek citizenship requires three years of residency in the country, while non-EU citizens must reside for a minimum of seven years. The Greece Golden Visa Program, involving an investment of at least €250,000, provides an affordable pathway to gain residency and eventually citizenship in the country. This initiative enhances accessibility for individuals seeking to establish a connection with Greece through investment and residency.

13. Italy

HDI Index: 0.895

Italy is indeed among the countries that accept dual or multiple citizenships. If a foreigner opts to apply for Italian citizenship, there is no requirement to renounce their previous citizenship, and similarly, an Italian citizen acquiring foreign nationality need not relinquish their Italian citizenship. The benefits of Italian citizenship, such as enhanced work opportunities and the ability to purchase property, make the country an attractive destination for prospective expatriates. Particularly advantageous is Italy's citizenship by descent, offering one of the fastest routes to acquiring citizenship. For individuals with Italian ancestors, there is no limit to the number of generations or individuals who can claim citizenship through descent, and the time period for the process can range from three months to three years. This inclusive approach contributes to Italy's appeal for those with ancestral ties to the country.

12. Cyprus

HDI Index: 0.896

Cyprus stands out as a nation that not only offers multiple pathways to citizenship but also facilitates the process by recognizing dual citizenship. The country's immigration laws do not compel its citizens to renounce their Cypriot nationality when acquiring citizenship in another country. However, the recognition of dual nationality with Cyprus by other countries may vary. This policy is particularly advantageous for expatriates aspiring to immigrate to Cyprus, a nation known for providing a high quality of life for its citizens. Notably, Cyprus's citizenship by investment programs offers an expedited route for high-net-worth individuals to gain citizenship in as little as six to eight months, further enhancing the appeal of the country as a destination for those seeking a swift and accessible pathway to citizenship.

11. France

HDI Index: 0.903

France also allows for dual or multiple nationality, enabling immigrants to maintain their original citizenship while also acquiring French citizenship and enjoying the same privileges as native citizens. French nationals seeking additional citizenship elsewhere can also do so without facing any negative consequences regarding their French nationality. The country provides various avenues for obtaining citizenship, and the French Talent Passport stands out as a well-known method for securing residency and citizenship, reflecting France's commitment to attracting and integrating skilled individuals into its society. This inclusive approach is indicative of France's recognition of the benefits of cultural diversity and global talent.

10. Malta

HDI Index: 0.918

Significant changes to Malta's citizenship laws occurred in the year 2000, ushering in a new era. Since February 10, 2000, Maltese nationals have had the freedom to acquire other citizenships without the risk of losing their original citizenship. This inclusive policy extends to foreign nationals as well, though the specific laws of the other country regarding dual nationality must be considered. Notably, investors who secure Maltese citizenship gain the privilege to work anywhere in the European Union, further enhancing the appeal of Malta as a destination for those seeking citizenship with expanded opportunities within the EU.

9. United Kingdom

HDI Index: 0.929

The British government does not impose any special conditions, such as the renunciation of previous citizenship, on individuals seeking dual citizenship. However, the concept of dual citizenship involves compliance with the laws of other countries governing citizenship protocols. The United Kingdom offers various pathways to citizenship, including the Innovator visa and Start-up visa, among others, providing individuals with diverse options to attain citizenship in the country. These programs contribute to the UK's openness to attracting and integrating talent from around the world, reflecting its commitment to cultural diversity and global innovation.

8. Luxembourg

HDI Index: 0.930

The Luxembourg Nationality Law of October 2008, which became effective on January 1, 2009, ushered in a policy allowing both Luxembourg nationals and foreign nationals to acquire dual or multiple citizenships. Notably, the renunciation of original citizenship is not required in either case, though it is essential to consider the rules of the other country involved. For instance, countries like the Netherlands do not accept dual nationality. Luxembourg provides various avenues for obtaining citizenship, with naturalization being one method that takes approximately 5 years to complete the citizenship process.

7. Belgium

HDI Index: 0.940

The Belgian government adopted a comprehensive stance on dual citizenship in two phases. In the first phase, starting from June 9, 2007, Belgians acquiring citizenship in countries not party to the Council of Europe Convention were permitted to retain their Belgian citizenship. The second phase, beginning on April 28, 2008, allowed Belgians voluntarily obtaining another citizenship to also maintain their original one. These policy changes are highly advantageous, providing convenient access for immigrants seeking to move for an improved quality of life. Belgium's commitment to dual citizenship reflects its openness to embracing cultural diversity and facilitating the integration of individuals from various backgrounds.

6. Finland

HDI Index: 0.940

Finnish legislation permits dual citizenship, allowing individuals to retain their Finnish citizenship even when applying for another citizenship. Similarly, foreign nationals acquiring Finnish citizenship need not renounce their original citizenship, subject to compliance with the dual citizenship laws of the other country involved. Despite the allowance for dual nationality, there is a unique provision where an individual might lose their Finnish citizenship at the age of 22 if they fail to establish a connection with the country. Various pathways exist for obtaining Finnish citizenship, with the standard residency requirement being 5 years. However, if an individual attains the required language skills, citizenship can be applied for in a shorter period of 4 years, showcasing Finland's commitment to facilitating integration for those who meet specific criteria.

Click to continue reading and see our 5 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship.

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Disclosure: None. 17 European Countries that Allow Dual Citizenship is originally published on Insider Monkey.